Communication mechanisms - message exchange, procedural communication (RPC, ORB), distributed shared memory. Process algebras - CSP, CCS, and pi-calculus, cooperating automata, Petri nets. Distributed execution, global state, causality, logical time. Algorithms of: exclusive access, leader election, deadlock detection/prevention, termination. Faults, resiliency, qourum algorithms, replication. Mobility, search in distributed systems - DHT.
1. Tanenbaum, A.: Computer Networks
2. Stallings, W.: Handbook of Computer Communication Standards